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SARCOIDOOSI KOHTA

This page contains general information about sarcoidosis – it is a good place to start if you are new to the condition. For more in depth information on specific types of sarcoidosis (e.g. affecting lungs, eyes, skin etc.) please use the menu above.

Every case of sarcoidosis is unique; you should always consult your doctor about your treatment plan. The information below is based on best practice and evidence but should not be taken as a substitute for medical advice.

Sellel lehel olev teave on koostatud sarkoidoosi spetsialistide abiga Dr R. Coker, Respiratory Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London and Dr K. BechmanDr J. GallowayReumatoloogia, Kings College'i haigla, London.

Mis on sarkoidoos?

Sarcoidosis is a condition where lumps called granulomas develop at different sites within the body. Granulomas are made up of clusters of cells involved in inflammation. If many granulomas form in an organ, they can prevent that organ from working properly.

Sarcoidosis can affect many different parts of the body. It often affects the lungs but can also affect the skin, eyes, joints, nervous system, heart and other parts of the body.

Please read more information on different types of sarcoidosis by selecting the relevant page from the drop-down menu under ‘Teave’ on the menu bar above.

Kes arendab sarkoidoosi?

Sarkoidoos on sageli valesti diagnoositud kui midagi muud ja on lahkarvamusi selle kohta, kui palju inimesi selle seisundiga elab. Kuid me teame, et sarkoidoos on haruldane. Enamik spetsialiste on nõus, et umbes 1 inimesel 10000 inimesest on Ühendkuningriigis sarkoidoos. Igal aastal diagnoositakse Ühendkuningriigis umbes 3000 kuni 4000 inimest sarkoidoosiga.

Sarcoidosis is prevalent in both men and women as well as all major ethnicities. There has been some research suggesting that it is slightly more prevalent in women than men. Our own research agrees with that – in SarcoidosisUK’s online community survey, 69% of respondents were female and 31% were male (7,002 participants).

Sarkoidoos võib tekkida igas vanuses, kuid see mõjutab tavaliselt täiskasvanuid nende 30-ndatel või 40-ndatel. Meie kogukonna uuringus andis meile teada oma vanuse 4 833 inimest. Andmed näitavad, et sarkoidoos on levinud kõigis vanuserühmades - 80% juhtudest on vahemikus 37 kuni 65 aastat. Keskmine teatatud vanus oli 50. (Pange tähele, et need ei ole diagnoosimise ajal vanad, kuid aruandeperioodil esitatud vanused).

Sageli tsiteeritakse Ameerika uuringud ütleb, et Aafrika ja Skandinaavia pärandi inimestel on suurem võimalus sõlmida seisund, mis tähendab geneetilist elementi.

What Causes Sarcoidosis?

The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known. It probably involves a precise combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition does run in some families. So far, a single factor causing sarcoidosis has not been identified.

SarcoidosisUK võtab juhtrolli meditsiiniuuringute rahastamisel, et selgitada välja põhjused ja leida ravi. Loe lähemalt SarcoidosisUK-uuring.

A number of websites claim to understand the causes of sarcoidosis and will sell you a cure. Please always consult your doctor before considering an alternative therapy.

What Parts of the Body are Affected?

Sarkoidoos võib mõjutada peaaegu iga kehaosa. Kõige sagedamini esinevad kopsud ja lümfisõlmed rindkeres, mis mõjutavad 9 patsienti 10 sarkoidoosiga patsiendist.

Muud kehaosad, mis võivad olla kaasatud, on nahk, silmad ja lümfisõlmed mujal kehas.

Liiged, lihased ja luud osalevad 1 patsiendil viiest. Närvid ja närvisüsteem on seotud umbes 1 patsiendiga 20-st. Süda on seotud umbes 1 patsiendiga 50-st.

Millised on sarkoidoosi sümptomid?

Sarkoidoosi sümptomid sõltuvad sellest, milline kehaosa on mõjutatud. Nende hulka võivad kuuluda:

  • köha
  • tunne hingetõmmet
  • punased või valusad silmad
  • paistes näärmed
  • nahalööve
  • valu liigestes, lihastes või luudes
  • näo, käte, jalgade tuimus või nõrkus

Patients with sarcoidosis may feel tired and lethargic (fatigued), lose weight or suffer with fevers and night sweats. 

Mõnikord algavad sarkoidoosi sümptomid äkki ja ei kesta kaua. Teistel patsientidel võivad sümptomid areneda järk-järgult ja kestavad mitu aastat.

Some people don’t have any symptoms at all and are told they have sarcoidosis after having a routine chest X-ray or other investigations.

Loe lähemalt sarkoidoosi kohta…

Sarkoidoosi etümoloogia ja ajalugu

Sõna „sarkoidoos“ pärineb kreeka keelest sarche- tähendus “liha”, järelliide - (e) ido meaning “resembles”, and -sis, a common suffix in Greek meaning “condition”. Therefore the whole word can be translated as something like “a condition that resembles flesh”. 

Sarcoidosis was first described in 1877 by English dermatologist Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson as “a condition causing red, raised rashes on the face, arms and hands”. Between 1909 and 1910 uveitis in sarcoidosis was first described. By 1915 it was first emphasised, by Dr. Schaumann, that it was a systemic condition (affecting the whole body).

Loe rohkem: Definition and history of sarcoidosis (Sharma, 2005). 

Definition of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is famously hard to define. This is partly because of how complicated the condition can be and partly because of the lack of any known cause. SarcoidosisUK’s definition is at the top of this page. Below are some other definitions to help you more easily understand and explain sarcoidosis.

Common definition (use with friends/family/employer):

Sarcoidosis is a condition that can affect any part of the body, most often the lungs. Clumps of cells called ‘granulomas’ stop the affected organ(s) working properly. There is no known cause or cure. It affects everyone differently and the symptoms depend on the organ(s) affected. In most cases, sarcoidosis can be managed by medication and goes away after a few months or years. In the long-term it can lead to serious organ damage.

Clinical definition (use with healthcare professionals):

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic systems of the body. A diagnosis of the disorder usually requires the demonstration of typical lesions in more than one organ system and exclusion of other disorders known to cause granulomatous disease. The appropriate therapy for the disorder also has not been well defined for all patients. Most importantly, the cause of the disorder is still unknown.

(ATS, ERS and WASOG Joint Statement on Sarcoidosis, 1999)

Official definition (for legal/official purposes):

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown cause characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in involved organs. The lung and the lymphatic system are predominantly affected, but virtually every organ may be involved. Other severe manifestations result from cardiac, neurological, ocular, kidney or laryngeal localizations.

(World Health Organisation, International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11), June 2018)

Kuidas Sarcoidosis diagnoositakse?

Sarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms often resemble other diseases. There is no single or specific test to diagnose sarcoidosis. 

A detailed history and examination by your doctor is the most important first step in diagnosing sarcoidosis. They will determine which parts of your body may be affected.

Blood tests Your doctor may arrange blood tests to look for signs of inflammation, to check your kidney and liver function, and your calcium levels. They may also check a marker in your blood called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is sometimes raised in patients with sarcoidosis.

Kopsud If your doctor suspects your lungs may be affected, they will usually arrange a chest X-ray and breathing tests (spirometry).

Skaneerib Your doctor may also arrange imaging scans (CT scan or PET CT scan) to look for other parts of your body that may be affected but might not be causing you any symptoms. The scans will look for inflammation (granulomas).

Biopsia In order to help make a definite diagnosis of sarcoidosis a sample of tissue (a biopsy) is taken from one of the areas of inflammation (granuloma) using a bronchoscopy.

As sarcoidosis can affect many different parts of the body, your doctor may ask other specialists (who specialise in the part of your body affected by sarcoidosis) to look after you as well. SarcoidosisUK has further information on all the different types of sarcoidosis, please use the menu above to find the best information for you.

Outlook

Sarcoidosis gets better without treatment in most patients (around 60%). In others, the condition persists and may require some treatment.

In the minority of patients that develop a more serious form of the disease, more aggressive and prolonged treatment is sometimes required.

A much smaller proportion of patients present with life-threatening symptoms, particularly in those with pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring) or heart or neurological involvement.

Sarkoidoosi ravi

There is currently no known cure for sarcoidosis.

Treatment is often necessary for patients whose sarcoidosis is causing severe symptoms or is preventing the affected organ(s) from functioning normally. Sometimes simple painkillers (paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory such as ibuprofen) may help to ease the symptoms.

The drugs used to treat sarcoidosis do so by reducing inflammation in the body. These are known as immunosuppressants. The most commonly used drugs are corticosteroids. These can be taken as a tablet (prednisolone) or given at a higher dose via a vein (methylprednisone). Treatment with corticosteroids is often required for at least 6 to 24 months.

Sometimes corticosteroids may not be completely effective, or cause side effects. Other immunosuppressants may be used, either alone or in combination, to help reduce the steroid dose. These medications include Methotrexate, Azathioprine and Mycophenolate.

Kroonilisi sarkoidoosi juhtumeid saab tavaliselt kontrollida ravimitega. Harvadel juhtudel on mõnedel patsientidel vaja hapnikku ja kopsu. Samamoodi võib südamele või selle lähedale tekitatav kahju nõuda südamestimulaatorit või muud ravi. Teised ravimeetodid võivad olla vajalikud ka siis, kui silmad ja nahk on sarkoidoosi mõjutatud. Palun vaadake konkreetseid lehekülgi, kasutades ülaltoodud menüüd, et saada lisateavet teatud tüüpi sarkoidoosi ravi kohta.

Tervislik elu

Sometimes patients’ symptoms may suddenly get worse (‘flare-up’). This may be triggered by stress, illness or nothing recognisable. Make sure you eat healthily, pace yourself, talk to friends and family and recognise mental health problems.

Palun võtke ühendust SarcoidosisUK-iga or your GP for further professional support.

Page last updated: August 2019. Next review: August 2021.

Seotud sisu SarcoidosisUK:

Sarkoidoos ja kopsud

Kas teil on pulmonaalne sarkoidoos? Kas sarkoidoos mõjutab kopse. Lisateabe saamiseks klõpsake siia.

Sarkoidoos ja nahk

Kas teil on naha sarkoidoos? Erythema Nodosum, Lupus Pernio ja kahjustused on tavalised märgid. Loe rohkem.

Sarkoidoos ja silm

Ligikaudu poolel sarkoidoosi põdevatel patsientidel esineb silma sümptomeid. Lisateave selle kohta, kuidas sarkoidoos võib silma mõjutada.

Sarkoidoos ja liigesed, lihased ja luud

Kas sarkoidoos mõjutab teie liigeseid, lihaseid või luud? Lisateabe saamiseks klõpsake allpool.

Sarkoidoos ja närvisüsteem

Sarkoidoos võib mõjutada närvisüsteemi (neurosarkoidoos). Lisateabe saamiseks klõpsake allpool.

Sarkoidoos ja süda

Sarkoidoos võib kopsudes sarkoidoosi tagajärjel otseselt ja kaudselt mõjutada südant. Loe lähemalt siit.

Sarkoidoos ja väsimus

Kas teil tekib väsimus? Leidke sümptomeid, ravi ja rohkem teavet sarkoidoosi ja väsimuse kohta.

Konsultantide kataloog

Kas soovite leida konsultandi? Kasutage meie kataloogi sarkoidoosi spetsialisti või kliiniku leidmiseks teie läheduses.

SarcoidosisUK tugi

Kuidas me saame teid toetada? Lisateavet meie õe abitelefoni, tugirühmade ja online-toe kohta leiate.

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