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SARCOIDOSIS JA LUNGS

Sarcoidosis can occur in any organ of the body. In about 90% of patients, sarcoidosis affects the lungs and / or lymph glands. This is also known as ‘pulmonary sarcoidosis’. The information on this page is for anyone affected by pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Sellel lehel olev teave on koostatud sarkoidoosi spetsialisti abiga Prof S. Birring, Consultant Respiratory Physician at Kings College Hospital, London and Prof L.P. Ho, Respiratory Physician at Oxford University NHS Foundation Trust.

Kopsude ja sarkoidoosi funktsioon

The lungs transfer oxygen from the air we breathe into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide leaves the blood through the lungs. This exchange happens in the lungs.

In pulmonary sarcoidosis, abnormal immune cells (known as ‘granuloma’) gather in the lungs and disrupt the uptake of oxygen.

These granuloma can also result in scarring. Scarring prevents the lungs stretching fully, and therefore limits their capacity. This in turn leads to loss of fully functional lung tissue and, eventually, shortness of breath.

In addition, these granuloma may develop around the lymphatic (or ‘lymph’) system of the lungs. The lymph system is an important part of the immune system that circulates the immune cells in the body.

 

Symptoms of Lung Sarcoidosis

Mõnikord algavad kopsutarkoidoosi sümptomid äkki ja ei kesta kaua. Teistel patsientidel võivad sümptomid areneda järk-järgult ja kestavad mitu aastat.

Mõnedel inimestel ei ole üldse sümptomeid ja neile öeldakse, et neil on pärast rutiinset rindkere röntgenit või teisi uuringuid sarkoidoos.

Kopsutarkoidoosi üldised sümptomid on:

  • fatigue and feeling ‘washed out’
  • õhupuudus, eriti treeningu ajal
  • dry and persistent cough
  • valu rinnus

Te võite lugeda, et konsultandid liigitavad sarkoidoosi "sarkoidoosi etappideks". Tegelikult on see harva kasutatav tehnik Ühendkuningriigis.

Elu pulmonaalse sarkoidoosiga

Sarkoidoos mõjutab inimesi väga erinevalt - iga juhtum on ainulaadne. Siiski on sarkoidoosiga elavate inimeste jaoks ühiseid kogemusi.

On tavaline, et sarkoidoosiga patsiendid võivad tunda väsimust ja unisust (väsimus), kaalust alla võtta või palaviku ja öise higistamisega.

Sometimes symptoms may suddenly get worse – this is known as a ‘flare-up’. This may be triggered by stress, infections, a change in environment or, often, nothing recognisable.  

It is important to make sure you eat healthily, pace yourself and talk to friends and family about your sarcoidosis. You should discuss your condition early on with your employer – use the SarcoidosisUK Leaflet Teave tööandjatele.

Sarkoidoos võib jätta patsiendid hirmul ja isoleerituks - tunnevad vaimse tervise probleemid varakult ja otsivad toetust. Palun võtke ühendust SarcoidosisUK-iga või teie perearst professionaalseks abiks.

Teie seisundi mõistmise meetodid

Sarcoidosis can be difficult to diagnose, particularly if the symptoms aren’t obvious. Multiple tests or scans may be needed to make a diagnosis.

Röntgen can give a picture of lung abnormalities. Generally, if abnormalities are found, additional tests are performed to confirm any diagnosis.

Lung Function Tests. Spirometry tests how well you breathe in and out. Lung volume tests measure the total size of your lungs. Gas transfer tests measure the amount of oxygen that passes from your lungs into your blood.

CT-skaneerimine (also called CAT scan or computed tomography) combines X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the inside of your body.

MRI skaneerib use magnetic fields and radio waves. They show some abnormal tissue clearer than CT scans. MRI is rarely used with the lungs but may be useful to check if other organs like the bones and heart are affected.

Bronoskoopia. Your doctor may use a thin flexible camera inserted through your mouth to examine your lungs for signs of sarcoidosis. They may then remove tiny amounts of lung or lymph nodes to help make a diagnosis (a biopsy).

In rare cases, surgery is required to obtain a biopsy. This technique is often used when doctors want to be sure to confirm the disease as sarcoidosis. The most common technique for this is called VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery).

Outlook

Sarcoidosis affects people differently and often follows an unpredictable course. Most patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis recover within a few years; sometimes no treatment is needed.

Some patients are more severely affected with symptoms worsening over time – more prolonged treatment may be necessary. This is known as chronic sarcoidosis.  

Treating Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

There is no cure for sarcoidosis. When treatment is required, its purpose is to prevent lung inflammation and scarring, worsening of the disease and to improve quality of life. Treatment can help relieve the symptoms as the disease runs its course.

Many patients experience side-effects from medication. You will discuss with your doctor the best treatment regime for you; regular check-ups may be necessary.

Kortikosteroidid (commonly called prednisoloon) may be used for a year or more. These drugs act to suppress the disease. A high dose is usually prescribed at the start of the treatment, before being reduced to a ‘maintenance dose’.

NSAIDS (Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) are anti-inflammatory drugs similar to aspirin; they are also mild painkillers. They are often used to reduce pain (e.g. joint pain).

Methotrexate and Azathioprine can be given in combination with corticosteroids for those with more severe sarcoidosis.

Page last updated: August 2019. Next review: August 2021.

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