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UM SARCOIDOSIS

This page contains general information about sarcoidosis – it is a good place to start if you are new to the condition. For more in depth information on specific types of sarcoidosis (e.g. affecting lungs, eyes, skin etc.) please use the menu above.

Every case of sarcoidosis is unique; you should always consult your doctor about your treatment plan. The information below is based on best practice and evidence but should not be taken as a substitute for medical advice.

Upplýsingarnar á þessari síðu hafa verið safnar saman með aðstoð sarkdísafræðinga Dr R. Coker, Respiratory Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London and Dr K. BechmanDr J. GallowayRheumatology, Kings College Hospital, London.

Hvað er sykursjúkdómur?

Sarcoidosis is a condition where lumps called granulomas develop at different sites within the body. Granulomas are made up of clusters of cells involved in inflammation. If many granulomas form in an organ, they can prevent that organ from working properly.

Sarcoidosis can affect many different parts of the body. It often affects the lungs but can also affect the skin, eyes, joints, nervous system, heart and other parts of the body.

Please read more information on different types of sarcoidosis by selecting the relevant page from the drop-down menu under ‘Upplýsingar’ on the menu bar above.

Hver þróar sykursjúkdóm?

Sarcoidosis er oft misdiagnosed sem eitthvað annað og það er ágreiningur um hversu margir búa við ástandið. Hins vegar vitum við að sarklíki er sjaldgæft. Flestir sérfræðingar eru sammála um að um það bil 1 af hverjum 10.000 manns hafi sarklíki í Bretlandi. Á hverju ári í Bretlandi eru um 3.000 til 4.000 manns greindir með sarklíki.

Sarcoidosis is prevalent in both men and women as well as all major ethnicities. There has been some research suggesting that it is slightly more prevalent in women than men. Our own research agrees with that – in SarcoidosisUK’s online community survey, 69% of respondents were female and 31% were male (7,002 participants).

Slímhúð getur komið fram á hvaða aldri sem er, en hefur almennt áhrif á fullorðna á 30 eða 40 ára aldri. 4.833 einstaklingar í könnun samfélagsins sögðu okkur aldur þeirra. Gögnin gefa til kynna að sarklíki sé algeng hjá öllum aldurshópum - þar sem 80% tilfella eru á milli 37 og 65 ára. Meðalaldur er 50 ára. (Vinsamlegast athugaðu að þetta er ekki aldur við greiningu en aldur á meðan skýrslan stendur.)

Tíð vitnað American rannsóknir segir að fólk af afrískum og skandinavískri arfleifð hafi meiri möguleika á að ljúka ástandinu, sem þýðir erfðafræðilega þátt.

What Causes Sarcoidosis?

The exact cause of sarcoidosis is not known. It probably involves a precise combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition does run in some families. So far, a single factor causing sarcoidosis has not been identified.

SarcoidosisUK tekur forystuna í fjármögnun læknisrannsókna til að greina orsakirnar og finna lækningu. Lestu meira um SarcoidosisUK Rannsóknir.

A number of websites claim to understand the causes of sarcoidosis and will sell you a cure. Please always consult your doctor before considering an alternative therapy.

What Parts of the Body are Affected?

Sarcoidosis getur haft áhrif á nánast hvaða hluta líkamans. Lungun og eitla í brjósti eru oftast þátt, sem hafa áhrif á 9 af hverjum 10 sjúklingum með sarklíki.

Önnur hlutar líkamans sem kunna að vera algengt eru húð, augu og eitlar annars staðar í líkamanum.

Samskeyti, vöðvar og bein taka þátt hjá 1 af hverjum 5 sjúklingum. Taugarnar og taugakerfið taka þátt í um það bil 1 af hverjum 20 sjúklingum. Hjartað tekur þátt í um það bil 1 af hverjum 50 sjúklingum.

Hver eru einkenni sykursýkis?

Einkenni sarkdísþurrðar eru háð því hvaða hluti líkamans hefur áhrif á. Þeir geta falið í sér:

  • hósti
  • andardráttur
  • rauð eða sársaukafull augu
  • bólgnir kirtlar
  • húðútbrot
  • verkur í liðum, vöðvum eða beinum
  • dofi eða máttleysi í andliti, handleggjum, fótleggjum

Patients with sarcoidosis may feel tired and lethargic (fatigued), lose weight or suffer with fevers and night sweats. 

Stundum byrja einkenni sykursýkis skyndilega og haldast ekki lengi. Hjá öðrum sjúklingum geta einkennin þróast smám saman og varað í mörg ár.

Some people don’t have any symptoms at all and are told they have sarcoidosis after having a routine chest X-ray or other investigations.

Lesa meira um sykursýki ...

Etymology og saga um sykursýki

Orðið "sarklíki" kemur frá grísku sarcο- sem þýðir "hold", viðskeyti - (e) ido meaning “resembles”, and -sis, a common suffix in Greek meaning “condition”. Therefore the whole word can be translated as something like “a condition that resembles flesh”. 

Sarcoidosis was first described in 1877 by English dermatologist Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson as “a condition causing red, raised rashes on the face, arms and hands”. Between 1909 and 1910 uveitis in sarcoidosis was first described. By 1915 it was first emphasised, by Dr. Schaumann, that it was a systemic condition (affecting the whole body).

Lestu meira: Definition and history of sarcoidosis (Sharma, 2005). 

Definition of Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is famously hard to define. This is partly because of how complicated the condition can be and partly because of the lack of any known cause. SarcoidosisUK’s definition is at the top of this page. Below are some other definitions to help you more easily understand and explain sarcoidosis.

Common definition (use with friends/family/employer):

Sarcoidosis is a condition that can affect any part of the body, most often the lungs. Clumps of cells called ‘granulomas’ stop the affected organ(s) working properly. There is no known cause or cure. It affects everyone differently and the symptoms depend on the organ(s) affected. In most cases, sarcoidosis can be managed by medication and goes away after a few months or years. In the long-term it can lead to serious organ damage.

Clinical definition (use with healthcare professionals):

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease that primarily affects the lung and lymphatic systems of the body. A diagnosis of the disorder usually requires the demonstration of typical lesions in more than one organ system and exclusion of other disorders known to cause granulomatous disease. The appropriate therapy for the disorder also has not been well defined for all patients. Most importantly, the cause of the disorder is still unknown.

(ATS, ERS and WASOG Joint Statement on Sarcoidosis, 1999)

Official definition (for legal/official purposes):

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown cause characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in involved organs. The lung and the lymphatic system are predominantly affected, but virtually every organ may be involved. Other severe manifestations result from cardiac, neurological, ocular, kidney or laryngeal localizations.

(World Health Organisation, International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11), June 2018)

Hvernig er sykursjúkdómur greindur?

Sarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms often resemble other diseases. There is no single or specific test to diagnose sarcoidosis. 

A detailed history and examination by your doctor is the most important first step in diagnosing sarcoidosis. They will determine which parts of your body may be affected.

Blood tests Your doctor may arrange blood tests to look for signs of inflammation, to check your kidney and liver function, and your calcium levels. They may also check a marker in your blood called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is sometimes raised in patients with sarcoidosis.

Lungur If your doctor suspects your lungs may be affected, they will usually arrange a chest X-ray and breathing tests (spirometry).

Skannar Your doctor may also arrange imaging scans (CT scan or PET CT scan) to look for other parts of your body that may be affected but might not be causing you any symptoms. The scans will look for inflammation (granulomas).

Biopsy In order to help make a definite diagnosis of sarcoidosis a sample of tissue (a biopsy) is taken from one of the areas of inflammation (granuloma) using a bronchoscopy.

As sarcoidosis can affect many different parts of the body, your doctor may ask other specialists (who specialise in the part of your body affected by sarcoidosis) to look after you as well. SarcoidosisUK has further information on all the different types of sarcoidosis, please use the menu above to find the best information for you.

The Outlook

Sarcoidosis gets better without treatment in most patients (around 60%). In others, the condition persists and may require some treatment.

In the minority of patients that develop a more serious form of the disease, more aggressive and prolonged treatment is sometimes required.

A much smaller proportion of patients present with life-threatening symptoms, particularly in those with pulmonary fibrosis (lung scarring) or heart or neurological involvement.

Meðferð við sykursýki

There is currently no known cure for sarcoidosis.

Treatment is often necessary for patients whose sarcoidosis is causing severe symptoms or is preventing the affected organ(s) from functioning normally. Sometimes simple painkillers (paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory such as ibuprofen) may help to ease the symptoms.

The drugs used to treat sarcoidosis do so by reducing inflammation in the body. These are known as immunosuppressants. The most commonly used drugs are corticosteroids. These can be taken as a tablet (prednisolone) or given at a higher dose via a vein (methylprednisone). Treatment with corticosteroids is often required for at least 6 to 24 months.

Sometimes corticosteroids may not be completely effective, or cause side effects. Other immunosuppressants may be used, either alone or in combination, to help reduce the steroid dose. These medications include Methotrexate, Azathioprine and Mycophenolate.

Langvarandi tilfelli af sarklíki geta yfirleitt verið stjórnað af lyfjum. Í mjög sjaldgæfum tilfellum þurfa sumir sjúklingar súrefnis- eða lungnakrabbamein. Jafnvel sjaldan getur skemmdir á eða nálægt hjarta krefst gangráða eða annarra meðferða. Aðrar meðferðir geta einnig verið nauðsynlegar þegar augu og húð verða fyrir áhrifum af sarklíki. Vinsamlegast athugaðu tiltekna síðurnar með því að nota valmyndina hér að ofan til að fá frekari upplýsingar um meðferðir við tilteknar tegundir af sarklíki.

Heilbrigður lífstíll

Sometimes patients’ symptoms may suddenly get worse (‘flare-up’). This may be triggered by stress, illness or nothing recognisable. Make sure you eat healthily, pace yourself, talk to friends and family and recognise mental health problems.

Vinsamlegast hafðu samband við SarcoidosisUK or your GP for further professional support.

Page last updated: August 2019. Next review: August 2021.

Svipað efni frá SarcoidosisUK:

Sarcoidosis og lungum

Ert þú með lungnaháþrýsting? Hefur sarklíki áhrif á lungun þína. Smelltu hér til að læra meira.

Sarcoidosis og húðin

Ert þú með húðkrabbamein? Hjartsláttartruflanir Nodosum, Lupus Pernio og Lesjón eru algeng einkenni. Lestu meira.

Sarcoidosis and the Eye

Um helmingur sykursýkisjúklinga upplifir augnsjúkdóma. Lestu meira um hvernig sársauki getur haft áhrif á augun.

Sarcoidosis og liðum, vöðvum og beinum

Hefur sarklíki áhrif á liðum, vöðvum eða beinum? Smelltu hér að neðan til að finna frekari upplýsingar.

Sarcoidosis og taugakerfið

Segavarnarlyf geta haft áhrif á taugakerfið (taugakrabbamein). Smelltu hér til að lesa meira.

Sarcoidosis og hjarta

Öndunarbólga getur haft áhrif á hjarta beint og óbeint vegna sarklíki í lungum. Lestu meira upplýsingar hér.

Sarcoidosis og þreyta

Upplifir þú þreytu? Finndu einkenni, meðferð og frekari upplýsingar um sarklíki og þreytu.

Ráðgjafaskrá

Viltu finna ráðgjafa? Notaðu skrá okkar til að finna læknismeðferð eða heilsugæslustöð nálægt þér.

SarcoidosisUK Stuðningur

Hvernig getum við stutt þig? Nánari upplýsingar er að finna á Nurse Helpline okkar, stuðningshópum og á netinu.

Deildu þessu