020 3389 7221 info@sarcoidosisuk.org
Выбрать страницу

Саркоидоз и легкие

Sarcoidosis can occur in any organ of the body. In about 90% of patients, sarcoidosis affects the lungs and / or lymph glands. This is also known as ‘pulmonary sarcoidosis’. The information on this page is for anyone affected by pulmonary sarcoidosis.

Информация на этой странице была собрана с помощью специалиста по саркоидозу Prof S. Birring, Consultant Respiratory Physician at Kings College Hospital, London and Prof L.P. Ho, Respiratory Physician at Oxford University NHS Foundation Trust.

Функция легких и саркоидоз

The lungs transfer oxygen from the air we breathe into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide leaves the blood through the lungs. This exchange happens in the lungs.

In pulmonary sarcoidosis, abnormal immune cells (known as ‘granuloma’) gather in the lungs and disrupt the uptake of oxygen.

These granuloma can also result in scarring. Scarring prevents the lungs stretching fully, and therefore limits their capacity. This in turn leads to loss of fully functional lung tissue and, eventually, shortness of breath.

In addition, these granuloma may develop around the lymphatic (or ‘lymph’) system of the lungs. The lymph system is an important part of the immune system that circulates the immune cells in the body.

 

Symptoms of Lung Sarcoidosis

Иногда симптомы легочного саркоидоза начинаются внезапно и не длятся долго. У других пациентов симптомы могут развиваться постепенно и сохраняться в течение многих лет.

У некоторых людей вообще нет никаких симптомов, и им говорят, что у них саркоидоз после обычной рентгенографии грудной клетки или других исследований.

Общие симптомы легочного саркоидоза включают в себя:

  • fatigue and feeling ‘washed out’
  • одышка, особенно при физической нагрузке
  • dry and persistent cough
  • грудная боль

Вы можете прочитать, что консультанты классифицируют саркоидоз на «Стадии саркоидоза». На самом деле это редко используемая техника клиницистами в Великобритании.

Жизнь с легочным саркоидозом

Саркоидоз влияет на людей совершенно по-разному - каждый случай уникален. Тем не менее, есть некоторые общие переживания для людей с саркоидозом.

Часто пациенты с саркоидозом могут чувствовать себя усталыми и вялыми (утомленными), терять вес или страдать от лихорадки и ночного пота.

Sometimes symptoms may suddenly get worse – this is known as a ‘flare-up’. This may be triggered by stress, infections, a change in environment or, often, nothing recognisable.  

It is important to make sure you eat healthily, pace yourself and talk to friends and family about your sarcoidosis. You should discuss your condition early on with your employer – use the SarcoidosisUK Leaflet Информация для работодателей.

Саркоидоз может привести к тому, что пациенты будут чувствовать себя напуганными и изолированными - распознавать проблемы психического здоровья на ранней стадии и обращаться за поддержкой пожалуйста связаться с саркоидозом или ваш лечащий врач для профессиональной поддержки.

Методы, чтобы понять ваше состояние

Sarcoidosis can be difficult to diagnose, particularly if the symptoms aren’t obvious. Multiple tests or scans may be needed to make a diagnosis.

Рентгеновские лучи can give a picture of lung abnormalities. Generally, if abnormalities are found, additional tests are performed to confirm any diagnosis.

Lung Function Tests. Spirometry tests how well you breathe in and out. Lung volume tests measure the total size of your lungs. Gas transfer tests measure the amount of oxygen that passes from your lungs into your blood.

компьютерная томография (also called CAT scan or computed tomography) combines X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the inside of your body.

МРТ сканирование use magnetic fields and radio waves. They show some abnormal tissue clearer than CT scans. MRI is rarely used with the lungs but may be useful to check if other organs like the bones and heart are affected.

бронхоскопия. Your doctor may use a thin flexible camera inserted through your mouth to examine your lungs for signs of sarcoidosis. They may then remove tiny amounts of lung or lymph nodes to help make a diagnosis (a biopsy).

In rare cases, surgery is required to obtain a biopsy. This technique is often used when doctors want to be sure to confirm the disease as sarcoidosis. The most common technique for this is called VATS (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery).

Перспектива

Sarcoidosis affects people differently and often follows an unpredictable course. Most patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis recover within a few years; sometimes no treatment is needed.

Some patients are more severely affected with symptoms worsening over time – more prolonged treatment may be necessary. This is known as chronic sarcoidosis.  

Treating Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

There is no cure for sarcoidosis. When treatment is required, its purpose is to prevent lung inflammation and scarring, worsening of the disease and to improve quality of life. Treatment can help relieve the symptoms as the disease runs its course.

Many patients experience side-effects from medication. You will discuss with your doctor the best treatment regime for you; regular check-ups may be necessary.

Кортикостероиды (commonly called преднизолон) may be used for a year or more. These drugs act to suppress the disease. A high dose is usually prescribed at the start of the treatment, before being reduced to a ‘maintenance dose’.

NSAIDS (Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) are anti-inflammatory drugs similar to aspirin; they are also mild painkillers. They are often used to reduce pain (e.g. joint pain).

Methotrexate and Azathioprine can be given in combination with corticosteroids for those with more severe sarcoidosis.

Page last updated: August 2019. Next review: August 2021.

Связанное содержание от SarcoidosisUK:

Саркоидоз и усталость

Вы испытываете усталость? Найти симптомы, лечение и больше информации о саркоидозе и усталости.

Справочник консультанта

Хотите найти консультанта? Используйте наш каталог, чтобы найти специалиста по саркоидозу или клинику рядом с вами.

Поддержка саркоидоза

Как мы можем поддержать вас? Узнайте больше о нашей горячей линии медсестры, группах поддержки и онлайн-поддержке.

Поделись этим